Critical thinking studies a subject or problem with open-mindedness. The process begins with a statement of what is to be studied,
proceeds to unrestricted discovery and consideration of possibilities,
and concludes with a pattern for understanding that is based on evidence.
Motives, bias, and prejudice of both the learner as well as the experts are then compared and form the foundation of judgment. Enter with an open mind:
- Define your destination, what you want to learn
Clarify or verify with your teacher or an “expert” your subjectTopics can be simple phrases:
“The role of gender in video game playing”
“Political history of France between the Great Wars of the first half of the Twentieth Century”
“Mahogany tree cultivation in Central America”
“Domestic plumbing regulations in the suburbs”
“Vocabulary and structure of a human skeleton”
- Think about what you already know about the subject
What do you already know that will help you in this study?
What are your prejudices?
- What resources are available to you, and what is your timeline?
- Gather information
Keep an open mind so as not to close your options
and for chance opportunities
- Ask questions
What are the prejudices of the authors of the information?
- Organize what you have collected into patterns to understand it
Look for connections
- Ask questions (again!)
- Think in terms of how you would demonstrate your learning for your topic
Yes! how would you create a test on what you have learned?
From simple to more complex (1-6) operations:Think in terms of making your learning an adventure in exploration!
1. List, label, identify Demonstrate knowledge 2. Define, explain, summarize in your own words Comprehend/understand 3. Solve, apply to a new situation Use your learning; apply it 4. Compare and contrast, differentiate between items Analyze 5. Create, combine, invent Synthesize 6. Assess, recommend, value Evaluate and explain whySummary of critical thinking: 1. Determine the facts of a new situation or subject without prejudice 2. Place these facts and information in a pattern so that you can understand them 3. Accept or reject the source values and conclusions based upon your experience, judgment, and beliefs
Diligence—Foolish as a person is, he can succeed in his work if he works hard. That does not admit of any doubt.
Perseverance— When you fail, don’t lose heart. Keep on working until you accomplish your aim.
Honesty— If you tell lies or does not keep your words, no one will rely on you. I would rather be scolded than cheat others. The key to success is not so much money as a strong will. A great man who has a strong purpose and an indomitable spirit. In other words, if a man does not have a strong will to get the final victory, he will never succeed in his life. He is no more than a failure. It is quite obvious that there is no difficult thing in the world. If you make up your mind to do it, you will certainly accomplish your end. That stands to reason.
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveller, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could.
To where it bent in the undergrowth,
Then took the other, as just as fair,
And having perhaps the better claim,
Because it was grassy and wanted wear,
Though as for that, the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,
And both that morning equally lay
In leaves no step had trodden black.
Oh, I kept the first for another day!
Yet knowing how way leads on to way
I doubted if I should ever come back.
I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I —
I took the one less travelled by,
And that has made all the difference.
the ability to locate and collect relevant information, to sort, classify, sequence, compare and contrast, and to analyse part/whole relationships
the ability to give reasons for opinions and actions, to draw inferences and make deductions, to use precise language to explain what they think, and to make judgements and decisions informed by reasons and/or evidence
the ability to ask relevant questions, to pose and define problems, to plan what to do and ways to research, to predict outcomes and anticipate consequences, and to test conclusions and improve ideas
the ability to generate and extend ideas, to suggest hypotheses, to apply imagination, and to look for alternative, innovative outcomes
the ability to evaluate information, to judge the value of what they read, hear and do, to develop criteria for judging the value of their own and others’ work or ideas, and to have confidence in their judgements.
For example, a gifted year 9 pupil might pursue an interest in a historical character for a personal enquiry. She would need to plan the enquiry, possibly using unit 22 to prompt ideas. Setting a key enquiry question would demand the enquiry skills of posing and defining a problem and planning what to do, and possibly the creative-thinking skill of suggesting a hypothesis. Conducting the enquiry would involve drawing on a range of thinking skills, including information-processing skills, as she identifies sources of relevant information and considers what may not be available. It would also involve comparing and contrasting information, using reasoning skills, drawing inferences and deductions and reaching judgements based on evidence. As part of the enquiry process and at its conclusion, evaluation skills would need to be deployed.
There is no doubt that happiness is the most precious thing in the world. Without it, life will be empty and meaningless. If you wish to know how to get happiness, you must pay attention to the following two points.
First, health is the secret of happiness. Only a strong man can enjoy the pleasure of life.
Secondly, happiness consists in contentment. A man who is dissatisfied with his present condition is always in distress.
And have books, it can bring happiness to us, as is well known, books teach us to learn life, truth, science and many other useful things. They increase our knowledge, broaden our minds and strengthen our character. In other words, they are our good teachers and wise friends. This is the reason why our parents always encourage us to read more books.
Reading is a good thing, but we must pay great attention to the choice of books. It is true that we can derive benefits from good books. However, bad books will do us more harm than good. <^V^>
However, money should not be wasted. It must be used for some proper purposes. There is not a thrifty man but becomes a rich man sooner or later. Why? Because he will not spend such money as is unnecessary. Little by little his money will accumulate. Ten to one, he is bound to make a fortune. I do not like such men as spend their money in a wrong way. They do not know extravagance is a bad thing. It can only make them happy for the time being. In short, thrift makes poor men rich and extravagance makes rich men poor.
We young men should form the good habit of not spending money in the wrong way.
Health is the best treasure which a man can possess. Money can do many things, but it cannot buy happiness. However, so long as man has good health, he can enjoy the pleasures of human life.
In order to insure good health we must pay attention to three things. They are nourishing food, fresh air and proper exercise.
each man is the architect of his own fate.——每个人都是自己命运的建筑师。
birds of a feather flock together.——物以类聚，人以群分。
talents come from diligence, and knowledge is gained by accumulation.——天才在于勤奋，知识在于积累。
an open enemy is better than a hollow friend.——宁有公开的敌人，不要虚伪的朋友。
a still tongue makes a wise head.——沉默者有智慧。
it is but a step from the sublime to the ridiculous.——从崇高到荒谬只有一步之遥。
ordinary people think merely of how they will spend time, a man of intellect tries to use it.——常人只想如何消磨时间，智者则努力利用时间。
anger begins with folly, and ends in repentance.——愤怒以愚蠢开始，以后悔告终。
all lay load on the willing horse.——人善被人欺，马善被人骑。
he who commences many things finishes but a few.——样样都搞，完成者少。 courage and resolution are the spirit and soul of virtue.——勇气和坚定是美德的精神与灵魂。
what is done by night appears by day.——若要人不知，除非已莫为。
its never too late to mend.——改过不嫌晚。
man proposes, god disposes.——谋事在人，成事在天。
running water does not get stale; a door-hinge is never worm-eaten.——流水不腐，户枢不蠹。 sweep before your own door.——正人先正已。
a hero is nothing but a product of his time.——时势造英雄。
it is better to trust to valour than to luck.——靠运气不如靠勇气。
ignorance is the mother of impudence.——无知是鲁莽之源。
one careless move may lose the whole game.—— 一步不慎，满盘皆输。
words are like bees, they have honey and a sting.——言语象蜜蜂，有蜜也有刺。
its only the idle will be tired.——只有闲人才会感到疲倦。
there are two tragedies in life. one is to lose your hearts desire, the other is to gain it.——失去心中所欲的和得到心中所欲的，是人生的两大悲剧。
strong in action, gentle in method.——行动要坚强，方式要温和。
he who mistrusts most should be trusted least.——最不信任别人的人最不应该得到